The Influence of Cultural Distance when Choosing a Suitable Foreign Direct Investment for the Internationalization Process of Companies. A theoretcal overview

Ivani Ferreira


The present study is theoretical analysis on the influence that cultural distance (CD) may possess on the process of internationalization of companies, and country cost representing this variable; comparing the arguments of the transaction cost theory and the organizational capability theory, with the purpose of determining which form of foreign direct investment (FDI) is most appropriate when companies are directed to culturally distant countries. Two types of FDI strategies are discussed in this study: a WOS (Wholly Owned Subsidiary), for companies wishing to expand their business into culturally distant countries, but with a lower risk; and an IJV (International Joint Venture), for companies wishing to expand their business into culturally distant countries, but with a higher risk to the company. This study describes two opposing positions attempting to converge when a moderator variable is included: country risk. Thus, we shall look to build a thorough model of analysis, where the earlier theories are complemented to explain the entrepreneurial performance following various scenarios, in which the involved variables are, concurrently, the cultural distance and country risk.


Foreign Direct Investment; International Joint Venture; Wholly Owned Subsidiary; Transaction Cost Theory; Organizational Capability Theory.


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