Participant and Non-Participant Observation: Theoretical Contextualization and Guide Suggestion for Methods Application

Marcio Luiz Marietto


Objective: Our objective was to provide explanations about methods, and to suggest a non-exhaustive road map with examples methods at the data collection stage of the research, in order to encourage the use of methods.

Method: Theoretical review on methods; proposition of a road map of procedures for the data collection stage; empirical examples of method application.

Main results: We found contextual and longitudinal location on the evolution of the method and the use of IT in non-participant observation. We also identified a characterization of the types of researchers, didactic detail by means of a script (step by step) in methods use, and empirical examples to understand the use of methods.

Theoretical / methodological contributions: The main contribution was the proposition of a script (step by step) to guide and stimulate the researchers to use the methods. The theoretical contribution is based on the distinction of the method of participant observation on the assumption of ethnography, besides the characterization of the method of non-participant observation with the help of IT. Also, we contribute by typifying and pointing out the expected competencies of the researchers as observers.

Relevance / originality: This work provides a didactic, technical and detailed guide to researchers in ​​Strategy as Organizational Practice and / or Study area, applying a method that is still little used but which is essential to the future perspectives of qualitative analysis.


Estratégia como Prática. Observação Participante. Observação Não Participante. Roteiro.


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