Technological Capacities and Exports Performance: The Case of Brazilian Football Clubs

Carolina Cristina Pinto Prado de Araujo, Ilan Avrichir, Bruno Henrique de Araujo

Abstract


Objective: Analyze the relationship between technological capabilities and performance in integrating into Global Value Chains, in order to investigate which combinations of technological capabilities lead to successful integrations of companies into Global Value Chains.

Methodology: Initially we collected the exportation of football players, between 2006 and 2016, from 20 clubs that were in the 2016 Brazilian National Championship. Subsequently, we performed five semi-structured interviews with football professionals. Data analysis was performed using the Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fs-QCA).

Originality/relevance: Studies have shown the trajectories that lead to the development of technological capabilities and the internationalization of companies. However, we did not found any research that proposed configurational models of these capabilities and the integration of companies into global value chains. Also, other studies analyze the relationship between access to knowledge and internationalization, but they did not develop a clear relationship between internationalization and technological capabilities.

Main results: It turns out that International Marketing is a necessary condition for successful integration into Global Value Chains, as well as, the conjunction of this factor with Planning of the Development of Players or Infrastructure or Team of Professionals forms three ways that increase the possibility of success in the integration.

Theoretical contributions: The main contribution of the research is expanding the theory of technological capabilities, through the adaptation of the functions presented in the capabilities matrix for a new sector. Another contribution is the evidence of the relationship between technological capabilities and export performance.


Keywords


Technological capabilities; Exports; Internationalization strategy; Football; fs-QCA

References


Allan, G. J., & Moffat, J. (2014). Muscle drain versus brain gain in association football: Technology transfer through player emigration and manager immigration. Applied Economics Letters, 21(7), 490–493. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2013.870641

Ariffin, N., & Figueiredo, P. N. (2004). Internationalization of innovative capabilities: counter‐evidence from the electronics industry in Malaysia and Brazil. Oxford Development Studies, 32(4), 559–583.

Artopoulos, A., Friel, D., & Hallak, J. C. (2013). Export emergence of differentiated goods from developing countries: Export pioneers and business practices in Argentina. Journal of Development Economics, 105(1), 19–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2013.07.001

Avrichir, I., Araujo, B. H., & Ramiro, W. (2016). The Dynamics of Local Learning in Global Value Chains. Revista Ibero Americana de Estratégia, 15(2). https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230281783

Bahia, M., Bandeira-de-Mello, R., & Spuldaro, J. (2018). Political strategy and the growth of business groups. RAUSP Management Journal, 53(1), 35–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rauspm.2017.06.001

Barrientos, S., Gereffi, G., & Rossi, A. (2010). Economic and Social Upgrading in Global Production Networks : Developing a Framework for Analysis. Capturing the Gains, (July), 1–23.

Allan, G. J., & Moffat, J. (2014). Muscle drain versus brain gain in association football: Technology transfer through player emigration and manager immigration. Applied Economics Letters, 21(7), 490–493. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2013.870641

Ariffin, N., & Figueiredo, P. N. (2004). Internationalization of innovative capabilities: counter‐evidence from the electronics industry in Malaysia and Brazil. Oxford Development Studies, 32(4), 559–583.

Artopoulos, A., Friel, D., & Hallak, J. C. (2013). Export emergence of differentiated goods from developing countries: Export pioneers and business practices in Argentina. Journal of Development Economics, 105(1), 19–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2013.07.001

Avrichir, I., Araujo, B. H., & Ramiro, W. (2016). The Dynamics of Local Learning in Global Value Chains. Revista Ibero Americana de Estratégia, 15(2). https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230281783

Bahia, M., Bandeira-de-Mello, R., & Spuldaro, J. (2018). Political strategy and the growth of business groups. RAUSP Management Journal, 53(1), 35–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rauspm.2017.06.001

Barrientos, S., Gereffi, G., & Rossi, A. (2010). Economic and Social Upgrading in Global Production Networks : Developing a Framework for Analysis. Capturing the Gains, (July), 1–23.

Bell, M., & Figueiredo, P. N. (2012). Innovation capability building and learning mechanisms in latecomer firms: recent empirical contributions and implications for research. Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue Canadienne d’études Du Développement, 33(1), 14–40.

Bell, M., & Pavitt, K. (1995). The development of technological capabilities. Trade, Technology and International Competitiveness, 22, 69–101.

Coe, N. M., Hess, M., Pike, A. (Editor), Rodriguez-Pose, A. (Editor), & Tomaney, J. (Editor). (2010). Local and regional development: a global production network approach. In The handbook of local and regional development (pp. 128–138). Routledge.

Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 37–46.

Crilly, D., Hansen, M. T., Pedersen, E., & Perrini, F. (2012). Faking It or Muddling Through ? Understanding Decoupling in Response To Stakeholder Pressures, 55(6), 1429–1449. https://doi.org/10.5465/ami.2010.0697

Dahlman, C. J., Ross-Larson, B., & Westphal, L. E. (1987). Managing technological development: Lessons from the newly industrializing countries. World Development, 15(6), 759–775. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(87)90058-1

Darby, P. (2013). Moving players, traversing perspectives: Global value chains, production networks and Ghanaian football labour migration. Geoforum, 50, 43–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.06.009

Dess, G. G., Lumpkin, G. T., & Covin, J. G. (1997). Entrepreneurial strategy making and firm performance: tests of contingency and configurational models. Strategic Management Journal, 18(9), 677–695. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199710)18:9<677::AID-SMJ905>3.0.CO;2-Q

Figueiredo. (2005). Acumulação tecnológica e inovação industrial: conceitos, mensuração e evidências no Brasil. São Paulo Em Perspectiva, 19(1), 54–69. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-88392005000100005

Figueiredo, & Figueiredo, P. N. (2008). Government policies and sources of latecomer firms’ capability building: A learning story from Brazil. Oxford Development Studies (Vol. 36). Taylor & Francis. https://doi.org/10.1080/13600810701848177

Fiss, P. C. (2011). Building better causal theories: A fuzzy set approach to typologies in organization research. Academy of Management Journal, 54(2), 393–420. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2011.60263120

Flores, R., Forrest, D., & Tena, J. D. (2010). Impact on competitive balance from allowing foreign players in a sports league: Evidence from European soccer. Kyklos, 63(4), 546–557. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6435.2010.00487.x

Fujita, M. (2011). Value chain dynamics and local suppliers’ capability building: an analysis of the Vietnamese motorcycle industry. In The Dynamics of Local Learning in Global Value Chains (pp. 68–99). Springer.

Gereffi, G., & Fernandez-Stark, K. (2016). Global Value Chain Analysis: A Primer. Duke CGGC (Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness), (July), 1–34.

Gereffi, G., Humphrey, J., & Sturgeon, T. (2005). The governance of global value chains. Review of International Political Economy, 12, 78–104. https://doi.org/10.1080/09692290500049805

Gradin, S. (2016). Rethinking the notion of “value” in global value chains analysis: A decolonial political economy perspective. Competition and Change, 20(5), 353–367. https://doi.org/10.1177/1024529416657490

Guerra, R. M. de A., & Camargo, M. E. (2016). The role of technological capability in the internationalization of the company and new product success: a systematic literature review. Internext.https://doi.org/10.18568/1980-4865.11149-62

Kaplinsky, R. (2000). Globalisation and Unequalisation: Whan Can Be Learned from Value Chain Analysis. Journal of Development Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/713600071

Katz, J. M. (1987). Domestic Technology Generation in LDCs: A Review of Research Findings. Technology Generation in Latin-American Manufacturing Industries.

Kawakami, M. (2011). Inter-firm dynamics in notebook PC value chains and the rise of Taiwanese original design manufacturing firms. In The Dynamics of Local Learning in Global Value Chains (pp. 16–42). Springer.

Lall, S. (1992). Technological capabilities and industrialization. World Development, 20(2), 165–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(92)90097-F

Lall, S. (2000). The Technological Structure and Performance of Developing Country Manufacturing Exports. Oxford Development Studies, 28(3), 337–369.

Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). An application of hierarchical kappa-type statistics in the assessment of majority agreement among multiple observers. Biometrics, 363–374.

Lino, A. F., Carvalho, L. B. De, Aquino, A. C. B. De, & Azevedo, R. R. De. (2018). A falta de trabalho institucional e mudanças organizacionais incompletas em municípios brasileiros. Revista de Administração Pública. Retrieved from http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/index.php/rap/article/view/76858

Liu, L., & Mei, S. (2016). Visualizing the GVC research: a co-occurrence network based bibliometric analysis. Scientometrics, 109(2). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-016-2100-5

Lucas, S. R., & Szatrowski, A. (2014). Qualitative comparative analysis in critical perspective. Sociological Methodology, 44(1), 1–79. https://doi.org/10.1177/0081175014532763

MIRANDA Paulo N., E. C. P. ; F. (2006). Direção e Acumulação de Capacidade Tecnológica: Evidências de Empresas de Software no Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, 24, 1–9.

Morrison, A., Pietrobelli, C., & Rabellotti, R. (2008). Global Value Chains and Technological Capabilities: A Framework to Study Learning and Innovation in Developing Countries. Oxford Development Studies, 36(1), 39–58. https://doi.org/10.1080/13600810701848144

Nelson, R. R., & Winter, S. G. (1982). An evolutionary theory of economic change. Cambridge MA Belknap (Vol. 93). https://doi.org/10.2307/2232409

Ordanini, A., Parasuraman, A., & Rubera, G. (2014). When the Recipe Is More Important Than the Ingredients. Journal of Service Research, 17(2), 134–149. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670513513337

Pack, H., & Westphal, L. E. (1986). Industrial strategy and technological change. Theory versus reality. Journal of Development Economics, 22(1), 87–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3878(86)90053-2

Ragin, C. (1987). The comparative method: Moving beyond qualitative and quantitative methods. Berkeley: University of California.

Ragin, C. (2000). their measuring devices and the readings these instruments produce by adjusting them so that they match or conform to, 1–31.

Ragin, C. (2008). Redisigning Social Inquiry: Fuzzy Sets and Beyond. University of Chicago Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=WUj9yT5zAiIC&pgis=1

Ragin, C., & Rihoux, B. (2004). Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA): State of the Art and Prospects. Qualitative Methods, 2(2), 3–13.

Rihoux, B., & Ragin, C. C. (2009). Configurational comparative methods: Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) and related techniques. Sage.

Rohlfing, I., & Schneider, C. Q. (2018). A Unifying Framework for Causal Analysis in Set-Theoretic Multimethod Research. Sociological Methods and Research, 47(1), 37–63. https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124115626170

Sato, Y. (2011). Local firms capacity development in captive value chains: Evidence from Indonesian motorcycle industry. In M. Kawakami & T. J. Sturgeon (Eds.), The dynamics of local learning in global value chains: Experiences from East Asia (pp. 100–135). New York: Palgrave Macmillan and IDE-Jetro.

Sato, Y., & Fujita, M. (2009). Capability matrix: a framework for analyzing capabilities in value chains.

Schneider, C. Q., & Wagemann, C. (2010). Standards of Good Practice in Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Fuzzy-Sets. Comparative Sociology, 9(3), 397–418. https://doi.org/10.1163/156913210X12493538729793

Schneider, C. Q., & Wagemann, C. (2012). Set-Theoretic Methods for the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from .

Timmer, M. P., Erumban, A. A., Los, B., Stehrer, R., & de Vries, G. J. (2014). Slicing Up Global Value Chains. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(2). https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.28.2.99

Allan, G. J., & Moffat, J. (2014). Muscle drain versus brain gain in association football: Technology transfer through player emigration and manager immigration. Applied Economics Letters, 21(7), 490–493. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2013.870641

Ariffin, N., & Figueiredo, P. N. (2004). Internationalization of innovative capabilities: counter‐evidence from the electronics industry in Malaysia and Brazil. Oxford Development Studies, 32(4), 559–583.

Artopoulos, A., Friel, D., & Hallak, J. C. (2013). Export emergence of differentiated goods from developing countries: Export pioneers and business practices in Argentina. Journal of Development Economics, 105(1), 19–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2013.07.001

Avrichir, I., Araujo, B. H., & Ramiro, W. (2016). The Dynamics of Local Learning in Global Value Chains. Revista Ibero Americana de Estratégia, 15(2). https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230281783

Bahia, M., Bandeira-de-Mello, R., & Spuldaro, J. (2018). Political strategy and the growth of business groups. RAUSP Management Journal, 53(1), 35–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rauspm.2017.06.001

Barrientos, S., Gereffi, G., & Rossi, A. (2010). Economic and Social Upgrading in Global Production Networks : Developing a Framework for Analysis. Capturing the Gains, (July), 1–23.

Bell, M., & Figueiredo, P. N. (2012). Innovation capability building and learning mechanisms in latecomer firms: recent empirical contributions and implications for research. Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue Canadienne d’études Du Développement, 33(1), 14–40.

Bell, M., & Pavitt, K. (1995). The development of technological capabilities. Trade, Technology and International Competitiveness, 22, 69–101.

Coe, N. M., Hess, M., Pike, A. (Editor), Rodriguez-Pose, A. (Editor), & Tomaney, J. (Editor). (2010). Local and regional development: a global production network approach. In The handbook of local and regional development (pp. 128–138). Routledge.

Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 37–46.

Crilly, D., Hansen, M. T., Pedersen, E., & Perrini, F. (2012). Faking It or Muddling Through ? Understanding Decoupling in Response To Stakeholder Pressures, 55(6), 1429–1449. https://doi.org/10.5465/ami.2010.0697

Dahlman, C. J., Ross-Larson, B., & Westphal, L. E. (1987). Managing technological development: Lessons from the newly industrializing countries. World Development, 15(6), 759–775. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(87)90058-1

Darby, P. (2013). Moving players, traversing perspectives: Global value chains, production networks and Ghanaian football labour migration. Geoforum, 50, 43–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.06.009

Dess, G. G., Lumpkin, G. T., & Covin, J. G. (1997). Entrepreneurial strategy making and firm performance: tests of contingency and configurational models. Strategic Management Journal, 18(9), 677–695. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199710)18:9<677::AID-SMJ905>3.0.CO;2-Q

Figueiredo. (2005). Acumulação tecnológica e inovação industrial: conceitos, mensuração e evidências no Brasil. São Paulo Em Perspectiva, 19(1), 54–69. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-88392005000100005

Figueiredo, & Figueiredo, P. N. (2008). Government policies and sources of latecomer firms’ capability building: A learning story from Brazil. Oxford Development Studies (Vol. 36). Taylor & Francis. https://doi.org/10.1080/13600810701848177

Fiss, P. C. (2011). Building better causal theories: A fuzzy set approach to typologies in organization research. Academy of Management Journal, 54(2), 393–420. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2011.60263120

Flores, R., Forrest, D., & Tena, J. D. (2010). Impact on competitive balance from allowing foreign players in a sports league: Evidence from European soccer. Kyklos, 63(4), 546–557. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6435.2010.00487.x

Fujita, M. (2011). Value chain dynamics and local suppliers’ capability building: an analysis of the Vietnamese motorcycle industry. In The Dynamics of Local Learning in Global Value Chains (pp. 68–99). Springer.

Gereffi, G., & Fernandez-Stark, K. (2016). Global Value Chain Analysis: A Primer. Duke CGGC (Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness), (July), 1–34.

Gereffi, G., Humphrey, J., & Sturgeon, T. (2005). The governance of global value chains. Review of International Political Economy, 12, 78–104. https://doi.org/10.1080/09692290500049805

Gradin, S. (2016). Rethinking the notion of “value” in global value chains analysis: A decolonial political economy perspective. Competition and Change, 20(5), 353–367. https://doi.org/10.1177/1024529416657490

Guerra, R. M. de A., & Camargo, M. E. (2016). The role of technological capability in the internationalization of the company and new product success: a systematic literature review. Internext.https://doi.org/10.18568/1980-4865.11149-62

Kaplinsky, R. (2000). Globalisation and Unequalisation: Whan Can Be Learned from Value Chain Analysis. Journal of Development Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/713600071

Katz, J. M. (1987). Domestic Technology Generation in LDCs: A Review of Research Findings. Technology Generation in Latin-American Manufacturing Industries.

Kawakami, M. (2011). Inter-firm dynamics in notebook PC value chains and the rise of Taiwanese original design manufacturing firms. In The Dynamics of Local Learning in Global Value Chains (pp. 16–42). Springer.

Lall, S. (1992). Technological capabilities and industrialization. World Development, 20(2), 165–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(92)90097-F

Lall, S. (2000). The Technological Structure and Performance of Developing Country Manufacturing Exports. Oxford Development Studies, 28(3), 337–369.

Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). An application of hierarchical kappa-type statistics in the assessment of majority agreement among multiple observers. Biometrics, 363–374.

Lino, A. F., Carvalho, L. B. De, Aquino, A. C. B. De, & Azevedo, R. R. De. (2018). A falta de trabalho institucional e mudanças organizacionais incompletas em municípios brasileiros. Revista de Administração Pública. Retrieved from http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/index.php/rap/article/view/76858

Liu, L., & Mei, S. (2016). Visualizing the GVC research: a co-occurrence network based bibliometric analysis. Scientometrics, 109(2). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-016-2100-5

Lucas, S. R., & Szatrowski, A. (2014). Qualitative comparative analysis in critical perspective. Sociological Methodology, 44(1), 1–79. https://doi.org/10.1177/0081175014532763

MIRANDA Paulo N., E. C. P. ; F. (2006). Direção e Acumulação de Capacidade Tecnológica: Evidências de Empresas de Software no Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, 24, 1–9.

Morrison, A., Pietrobelli, C., & Rabellotti, R. (2008). Global Value Chains and Technological Capabilities: A Framework to Study Learning and Innovation in Developing Countries. Oxford Development Studies, 36(1), 39–58. https://doi.org/10.1080/13600810701848144

Nelson, R. R., & Winter, S. G. (1982). An evolutionary theory of economic change. Cambridge MA Belknap (Vol. 93). https://doi.org/10.2307/2232409

Ordanini, A., Parasuraman, A., & Rubera, G. (2014). When the Recipe Is More Important Than the Ingredients. Journal of Service Research, 17(2), 134–149. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670513513337

Pack, H., & Westphal, L. E. (1986). Industrial strategy and technological change. Theory versus reality. Journal of Development Economics, 22(1), 87–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3878(86)90053-2

Ragin, C. (1987). The comparative method: Moving beyond qualitative and quantitative methods. Berkeley: University of California.

Ragin, C. (2000). their measuring devices and the readings these instruments produce by adjusting them so that they match or conform to, 1–31.

Ragin, C. (2008). Redisigning Social Inquiry: Fuzzy Sets and Beyond. University of Chicago Press. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=WUj9yT5zAiIC&pgis=1

Ragin, C., & Rihoux, B. (2004). Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA): State of the Art and Prospects. Qualitative Methods, 2(2), 3–13.

Rihoux, B., & Ragin, C. C. (2009). Configurational comparative methods: Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) and related techniques. Sage.

Rohlfing, I., & Schneider, C. Q. (2018). A Unifying Framework for Causal Analysis in Set-Theoretic Multimethod Research. Sociological Methods and Research, 47(1), 37–63. https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124115626170

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Schneider, C. Q., & Wagemann, C. (2010). Standards of Good Practice in Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Fuzzy-Sets. Comparative Sociology, 9(3), 397–418. https://doi.org/10.1163/156913210X12493538729793

Schneider, C. Q., & Wagemann, C. (2012). Set-Theoretic Methods for the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from .

Timmer, M. P., Erumban, A. A., Los, B., Stehrer, R., & de Vries, G. J. (2014). Slicing Up Global Value Chains. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(2). https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.28.2.99

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